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Historic evidence to support a causal relationship between spirochetal
Following previous observations a statistically significant association between various types of spirochetes and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) fulfilled Hill’s criteria in favor of a causal relationship. If spirochetal infections can indeed cause AD, the pathological and biological hallmarks of AD should also occur in syphilitic dementia.
Alzheimer’s Disease: A Novel Hypothesis Integrating Spirochetes etc.
In the light of recent studies showing the presence of spirochetes in the brains of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients, we have studied (post mortem) the hippocampus region in the brains of similarly affected AD patients utiliz- ing both pathology and immunohistochemistry. Our findings demonstrate that the plaques, which are characteristically found in AD brains, reveal the presence of biofilms. These biofilms are undoubtedly made by the spirochetes pres- ent there; further, we have also found that the biofilms co-localize with the β amyloid that is a signature finding in the disease.